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Archive for agosto \29\UTC 2016

La triste ironie de la chute de Dilma Rousseff

Posted by iscariotes em 29 de agosto de 2016

Fonte: Le Monde

Editorial. Première femme présidente du Brésil, Dilma Rousseff vit ses derniers jours au sommet de l’Etat. L’issue de son procès en destitution, ouvert jeudi 25 août au Sénat, ne fait guère de doute. A moins d’un coup de théâtre, la dauphine du bien-aimé président Lula (2003-2010), suspendue de ses fonctions en mai, sera définitivement chassée du pouvoir le 30 ou le 31 août.

Dilma Rousseff a commis des erreurs politiques, économiques et tactiques. Mais son éviction, motivée par des acrobaties comptables auxquelles elle s’est livrée comme bien d’autres présidents, ne passera pas à la postérité comme un épisode glorieux de la jeune démocratie brésilienne.

Pour décrire le processus en cours, ses partisans évoquent un « crime parfait ». L’impeachment, prévu dans la Constitution brésilienne, a tous les atours de la légitimité. Personne, de fait, n’est venu déloger Dilma Rousseff, réélue en 2014, par la force des baïonnettes. L’ancienne guerrillera a elle-même usé de tous les recours légaux pour se défendre, en vain. Impopulaire et malhabile, Dilma Rousseff s’estime victime d’un« coup d’Etat » fomenté par ses adversaires, par les médias, et en particulier par la télévision Globo, aux ordres d’une élite économique soucieuse de préserver ses intérêts prétendument menacés par la soif d’égalitarisme de son parti, le Parti des travailleurs (PT).

La bête noire d’une partie des Brésiliens

Cette guerre au sommet s’est déroulée sur fond de révolte sociale. Après les « années bonheur » de prospérité économique, d’avancées sociales et de recul de la pauvreté sous les deux mandats de Lula, est venu, dès 2013, le temps des revendications citoyennes. L’accès à la consommation, l’organisation de la Coupe du monde puis des Jeux olympiques n’étaient plus de nature à combler le « peuple ». Il voulait davantage que « du pain et des jeux » : des écoles, des hôpitaux, une police fiable.

Le scandale de corruption à grande échelle lié au groupe pétrolier Petrobras a achevé de scandaliser un pays malmené par une crise économique sans précédent. En plein désarroi, une partie des Brésiliens ont fait du juge Sergio Moro, chargé de l’opération « Lava Jato » (« lavage express »), leur héros, et de la présidente leur bête noire.

L’ironie veut que si la corruption a fait descendre des millions de Brésiliens dans les rues ces derniers mois, ce n’est pas à cause d’elle que tombera Dilma Rousseff. Pire : les artisans de sa chute ne sont pas eux-mêmes des enfants de chœur. L’homme qui a lancé la procédure de destitution, Eduardo Cunha, ancien président de la Chambre des députés, est accusé de corruption et de blanchiment d’argent. La présidente du Brésil est jugée par un Sénat dont un tiers des élus font, selon le site Congresso em Foco, l’objet de poursuites criminelles. Elle sera remplacée par son vice-président, Michel Temer, pourtant censé être inéligible pendant huit ans pour avoir dépassé la limite autorisée de frais de campagne.

Le bras droit de M. Temer, Romero Juca, ancien ministre de la planification du gouvernement intérimaire, a été confondu en mai par une écoute téléphonique datée du mois de mars dans laquelle il réclamait explicitement un « changement de gouvernement » pour barrer la route de l’opération judiciaire « Lava Jato ». S’il n’y a pas coup d’Etat, il y a au moins tromperie. Et les vraies victimes de cette tragi-comédie politiquesont, malheureusement, les Brésiliens.

Em http://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2016/08/26/la-triste-ironie-de-la-chute-de-dilma-rousseff_4988341_3232.html

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Revealed: corrupt Brazilian businessman’s UK property splurge

Posted by iscariotes em 3 de agosto de 2016

Fonte: Guardian

A Brazilian businessman who has admitted laundering millions of dollars in bribes went on a 12-month property spending spree in London and Leeds, a Guardian investigation has found.

Expedito Machado – the son of a former senator implicated in the massive corruption scandal at Petrobras – spent £21m on UK real estate in 2014 and 2015, buying office buildings in the City and Fleet Street, an apartment in Mayfair and a canal-side plot in the docklands area of Leeds.

The case potentially ties London property to one of the world’s biggest fraud investigations, called Operation Carwash.

The investigation has already uncovered an estimated $2bn of funds diverted to Brazilian politicians and their allies. The kickbacks came from contractors bidding for work with the country’s state-owned oil and gas giant Petroleo Brasileiro SA, known as Petrobras.

At the heart of the inquiry is Expedito’s father, Sérgio Machado, who turned whistleblower after he left Petrobras’s distribution arm, Transpetro, in 2014.

Machado had been accused of operating a long-running bribery scheme and his evidence to prosecutors, which includes secret tape recordings, has already brought down three ministers. His accusations now risk implicating the interim president, Michel Temer, who took over following the impeachment of Dilma Rousseff in May.

Witness statements by Machado and his sons, who began cooperating with prosecutors in May after negotiating plea-bargains, set out in forensic detail how bank accounts in Switzerland and Andorra, British Virgin Islands shell companies and secretive trusts were used to collect bribes.

The Guardian can now reveal how Expedito Machado usedanother set of offshore structures to move cash into the UK.

The findings raise questions about whether the money used to buy the properties came from kickbacks. Expedito’s witness statement suggests this was the case. His lawyers point out that none of the UK properties are included in a list of assets of supposed illegal origin which are being returned to the Brazilian government. They say the buildings were acquired after Expedito sold one of his businesses.

Lists of offshore companies owned by the family were leaked to the press along with their witness statements in June. Checks against the Land Registry showfour BVI entities set up by Expedito Machado currently hold property in England.

The 31-year-old entrepreneur and finance worker moved to London in 2012. Starting in October 2014, he spent £6m on a freehold in the former docklands area of Leeds.

Three more investments followed – using offshore vehicles linked to multiple bank accounts at Santander:

  • In April 2015, GTD Properties Limited paid £7.2m for the freehold on an office building in Great Winchester Street. In the heart of the City of London, it is currently leased by a bank.
  • In June 2015, CDP Properties Limited, owned by The Noronha Trust, bought the leasehold to a flat on Lowndes Square in Mayfair for £1.8m.
  • In October 2015, PDB Properties Limited, belonging to The Boldro Trust, paid £6.2m for freehold land at Bell Yard, just off Fleet Street. The address is home to a legal chambers, 9-12 Bell Yard, which specialises in fraud cases.

A spokesperson for Santander said the bank could not discuss client information for confidential reasons.

Expedito Machado’s companies are understood to collect thousands of pounds a year in rent from their commercial tenants. There is no suggestion these leaseholders were aware of the identity of the beneficial owners or the source of the offshore companies’ funds.

The money trail

Close to his father and keen to follow him into politics, Expedito began acting as a go-between in 2007, helping collect kickbacks from contractors. His witness statement says his father, after taking up his post at Transpetro when he lost his Senate seat in 2003, was “pressured to obtain illegal funds by politicians who had supported him”.

The majority of the funds was handed over to the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), which nominated Machado to the Transpetro post. But some of the money was set aside to fund his future campaign to become a state governor. It was “his dream”, according to his son.

Over the following five years, the family collected 72m reals (£16.7m) in payments to an account held by HSBC in Zurich. Opened in 2007, the account was controlled by a trust set up by the bank, Expedito claimed.

The cash was transferred from HSBC to another Swiss bank, Julius Baer, in 2013. There, it was held in investment funds.

The following year, Expedito decided to move the proceeds into property. “At the end of 2014, he decided to start making investments in real estate in Europe and was advised by lawyers that the best tax structure would be via a trust,” Expedito’s witness statement claims.

The senator’s son had already moved to London following the sale of an education business he had founded in Brazil.

“With the conclusion of the sale in 2012,” his statement claims, he “changed his residence to London to find a solution to the bribery money that had been deposited in Switzerland”.

“The idea of keeping the resources in a trust was … to have full flexibility in inclusion of new beneficiaries indicated by my father; That our father, even could be included as one of the beneficiaries.”

The money allegedly came from six firms, named in the witness statement, specialising in construction, shipping and engineering. At the time, Machado Sr was overseeing the modernisation of Transpetro’s fleet of ships, a programme that cost billions of reals.

Expedito arranged to meet executives from the contractors at cafes, offices and restaurants in São Paulo and other locations. It was at these encounters that arrangements for the illegal transfers were agreed. In one case, he claimed he travelled to Paris to see a Greek shipping owner at the opulent Hôtel de Crillon, where he allegedly handed over the details of the family’s Swiss account at HSBC.

In another instance, a construction company is alleged to have made a 9m real payment using a shell entity called Desarrollo Lanzarote SA, and bank accounts in the tax haven of Andorra.

Expedito said he had been assured by his father that the payments would not influence the choice of contractor, and would be taken from their profit margins. The system “would maintain good management” at Transpetro, which operates a large shipping fleet, terminals and thousands of kilometers of gas pipelines. “I understand this today to be incompatible,” Expedito’s statement conceded, “but at the time I did not think that way.”

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jul/28/corrupt-brazilian-businessman-expedito-machado-uk-property-splurge

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